Those individuals who have diabetes have high blood glucose, which is also known as hyperglycemia or high blood sugar Diabetes is best described as a complex group of illnesses with different causes. As a metabolism disorder, diabetes can cause improper use of digested energy from food. In this case, the starches and sugars are processed into glucose by the digestive tract. The glucose is absorbed and use for energy by the cells throughout the body with the help of insulin.
When the body is incapable of using insulin effectively or the body makes insufficient insulin or both, diabetes develops. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. Pancreas is an organ found behind the stomach, which contains islets. Insulin is made within the islets by the beta cells and release into the blood.
If those beta cells were not able to produce sufficient amount of insulin or the human body does not react to the existing insulin, glucose will build up in the blood, which will lead to prediabetes or diabetes. Glucose should be absorbed by the cells in the body.
Prediabetes is defined as a condition wherein the A1C levels or blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. On the other hand, diabetes will cause the cells to starve of energy in spite of the high blood glucose levels.
In the long run, the nerves and blood vessels will be affected due to the high blood glucose leading to stroke, dental disease, blindness, amputation, heart disease and kidney disease. Depression, increased vulnerability to other diseases, pregnancy problems and loss of mobility with aging are some of the possible complications brought by diabetes.
Until today, no one can pinpoint what starts the processes causing diabetes. However, many scientists believe that environmental factors and genes interact leading to diabetes in most cases.
There are two (2) main types of diabetes; Type 1 and Type 2. The gestational diabetes is the third type, which only occurs during pregnancy and explained well. This website reported that the Type 1 and Type 2 are caused by certain chemicals or drugs, defects in specific genes, infections, diseases of the pancreas and other conditions. In some cases, a diabetic patient show signs of both Type 1 and Type 2.
At the moment, the specific case of Type 1 diabetes is unidentified. What is known is that the immune system attacks and damages the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. The immune system supposes to fight harmful viruses and bacteria. If this is the case, your body will produce little or no insulin. The sugar builds up in the bloodstream instead of being transported into the cells. In this type of diabetes, the destruction of the beta cells may happen over a couple of years, but the symptoms normally develop over a short amount of time.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form, which is caused by a combination of different factors, which includes insulin resistance. This type develops when the body could no longer make enough insulin to balance for the impaired ability to use insulin. The symptoms might gradually develop and be subtle. Some type 2 patients remain undiagnosed for several years.
To sustain pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones during pregnancy. These hormones make the cells more insulin resistant. In the case of gestational diabetes, the pancreas responds by making additional insulin to overcome this resistance. Unfortunately, the pancreas cannot keep up sometimes and too little glucose gets into the cells and too much remains in the blood, causing gestational diabetes.